‘O”¼‚̍u‹`‚̐i‚ß•û

E           ‰½l‚©‚É“š‚¦‚ðŒ¾‚Á‚Ä‚à‚炤(“_‚ð—^‚¦‚é)

E           ‚»‚ê‚𒼂·

E           ƒlƒCƒeƒBƒu‚̉p•¶‚ðŽ¦‚·

 

‚»‚ꂼ‚ê‚Ì“ú‚É‚¿‚²‚Æ‚ÉŠe‰ñ‚̍u‹`‚ðs‚¤B

 

ŽŽŒ±

’†ŠÔŽŽŒ±F‘O”¼‚̉p–ó

u‹`‚̍ہA”‘‚µ‚½“à—e‚àŽŽŒ±‚Ɋ܂ށB

’†ŠÔŽŽŒ±‚Í‚W‰ñ–ڂ̍u‹`

’PŒê‚Í–ˆ‰ñŠo‚¦‚Ä‚¨‚­”͈͂ðŽw’肵AŽŸ‰ñ¬ƒeƒXƒg‚ðs‚¤B

 

10/22, 11/19‚Í‹xu

 

12/3 ‚É’†ŠÔƒeƒXƒg

 

 

5.3 Water as a solvent

*‚¢‚­‚‚àŽí—Þ‚ª‚ ‚é—n”}‚̈ꂁA‚Æ‚¢‚¤ˆÓ–¡‚Å‚‚ª‚‚­

 

 

–󂵂ɂ­‚¢•¶‚ð‰p–ó‚·‚é”錍

 

E           ŽåŒê‚ƏqŒê‚𔲂«o‚·B

——R‚́c‚¾‚©‚ç‚Å‚ ‚é

E           ‚»‚Ì•”•ª‚¾‚¯‚ð–ó‚·

the reason is that ~

E           ‚»‚ꂼ‚ê‚̏Cü•”•ª‚ð•t‚¯‰Á‚¦‚é

 

E           ‚»‚ê‚Å‚à–󂹂Ȃ¢ê‡‚Í“ú–{Œê‚ð•Ï‚¦‚éiŽåŒê‚ƏqŒê‚ð‚Í‚Á‚«‚肳‚¹‚éACüŒê‚ª‰½‚É‚©‚©‚é‚©‚ð‚Í‚Á‚«‚肳‚¹‚éj

 

unno@gunma-u.ac.jp

 

http://element.chem-bio.st.gunma-u.ac.jp/English/

 

e-ƒ‰[ƒjƒ“ƒOŽ©KƒvƒƒOƒ‰ƒ€

http://www.tech.gunma-u.ac.jp/GGP/E-learning/ccb/main.html

 

–{“ú‚Ì’PŒêƒeƒXƒg

‚PD                          molecule

‚QD                          intermediate

‚RD                          distillation

‚SD                          hydrolysis

‚TD                          enzyme

 

The (greatest) reason that

        major

 we have to drink water is that water is an excellent solvent at many chemical

           for

 materials which make

substances

up our body.

 

A major reason we must consume water is that it is an excellent solvent for many of the chemicals that make up our bodies.

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

•¶’†‚ÅŽåŒê—qŒê‚ðŠÜ‚Þ•¶‚ªŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚é‚Æ‚«i•¡•¶j‚»‚Ì•¶‚Ì‘O‚É‚©‚Ȃ炸that‚ð“ü‚ê‚éB

substance: •¨Ž¿

chemicals: ‰»Šw•¨Ž¿

consume: Á”ï‚·‚é

 

The Water is also an (excellent) solvent for

  good

many other substances.

And water is also ~.

Water is an excellent solvent for as others substances.

 

(‘O‚Ì•¶Í‚ɃJƒ“ƒ}‚Å‘±‚¯‚Ä)

as well as for a wide variety of other substances.

It is also a good solvent for ~.

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

as well as `‚à‚Ü‚½

–                    ‹­’²‚µ‚½‚¢‚Æ‚«‚Í’·‚¢’PŒê‚ð‚í‚´‚ÆŽg‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ª‚ ‚éB

 

‰pŒê‚̓ŠƒYƒ€‚ðd‚ñ‚¶‚é‚̂ŁAÚ‘±Œê‚ð‚©‚È‚è‘½—p‚·‚éB

a wide variety of ‘½Ê‚ȁA‘½—l‚È

 

A solvent is a medium which can dissolve another substances.

A solvent is a medium which can dissolve other substances.

A solvent is a substance capable of dissolving other substances.

iƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgj

capable of ~ : ~‚µ“¾‚é

We call the substances

Solute is a

 which are dissolved in the

            is

 solvent solute.

Solutes are those substances that dissolve in a solvent.

 

http://mdl.media.gunma-u.ac.jp ƒƒOƒCƒ“

ƒR[ƒXƒJƒeƒSƒŠ¨ê–勳ˆç¨HŠw•”¨Œ»‘ãGP

ƒR[ƒX‘I‘ð

“o˜^ƒL[eng_biology

            gp_chem

 

reaction mechanism

element

reactivity

hydrophilic

equilibrium

 

Table 5.1. Importance of Water as a Solvent

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

E           ƒLƒƒƒvƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚́A‘O’uŽŒAŠ¥ŽŒˆÈŠO‚Ì’PŒê‚ð‘啶Žš‚ÅŽn‚߂邱‚Æ‚ª‘½‚¢

E           •¶Í‚Å‚È‚¯‚ê‚΍Ōã‚ɃsƒŠƒIƒh‚Í‘Å‚½‚È‚¢

 

In our bodies:

iƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgj

ƒRƒƒ“iFj‚ÍŒã‚ë‚Ì“à—e‚ðà–¾‚·‚éƒ^ƒCƒgƒ‹‚È‚Ç‚ÉŽg‚í‚ê‚éB

ƒZƒ~ƒRƒƒ“iGjƒJƒ“ƒ}‚æ‚菭‚µ‹­‚¢‹æØ‚è‚ÉŽg‚¤BŒã‚ë‚Ì•¶Í‚ðÚ‘±Œê–³‚µ‚Å’¼Ú‘±‚¯‚Ä‚æ‚¢B

 

Blood plasma is a solution

that contains a lot of

                    many

life-maintenance substances conclude it.

 

Blood plasma is a solution which contains substances to (sustain)

                      support

 various life.lives

 

 

Blood plasma is a water

                         aqueous

 solution that contains various materials to keep our life.

 

Blood plasma is a solution in which various life-supporting substances are contained.

 

Blood plasma is an aqueous solution containing a variety of life-supporting substances.

 

Oxygen (breathed-in) is

Inhaled oxygen

 combines with hemoglobin in the lung, and dissolves in blood plasma.

Inhaled oxygen dissolves in blood plasma in the lungs, allowing O2 to combine with hemoglobin.

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

‚±‚Ì•¶Í‚Í•ªŽŒ\•¶B`ing

or ~ed‚ÅŽn‚߂āAŽåŒê‚ðÈ—ª‚·‚é

 

CO2 dissolved in blood

Carbon dioxide is

 plasma, being  carried to lungs and  be discharged

                  is

 from our bodies.

Blood plasma carries dissolved CO2 to the lungs to be exhaled.

iƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgj

•¶Í‚͐”ŽšA‚ ‚é‚¢‚Í—ª†A‰»ŠwŽ®‚ÅŽn‚ß‚Ä‚Í‚¢‚¯‚È‚¢i•¶Žš‚É’¼‚·j

‚PDisomer

2. purification

3. reagent

4. cyclization

5. molecular weight

 

Pure drinking water is (impossible), because

very rare

water is so excellent as

            a so good

solvent.

 

Because water too

      is such a good solvent

 excellent, there is no way that existed pure drinking water. to be existed.

Because water is such a good solvent, drinking water is rarely, if ever, just "pure" water.

if ever (­‚µŒûŒê“I)@‚ ‚Á‚½‚Æ‚µ‚Ä‚à­‚È‚¢

""‚Í‹­’²‚·‚邽‚ß‚É—p‚¢‚Ä‚¢‚éB

 

A Drinking water assures

 that it must be confused

containing

other substances, too.

I guarantee that drinking water sure enough to confuse contains other substances.

You can be assured that it almost certainly contains other substances.

iƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgj

‰ÈŠw˜_•¶‚ŁAu‚à‚Ü‚½v‚ðˆÓ–¡‚·‚é‚Æ‚« ,too‚ðŽg‚Á‚Ä‚Í‚¢‚¯‚È‚¢Balso‚𕶒†‚ÉŽg‚¤B

 

ŠÜ‚ށcontain

 

Municipal water companies provide information about the dissolved mineral content.

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

’ñ‹Ÿ‚·‚遁provide –³¶•¨ŽåŒê‚È‚Ç‚Å‚à‚æ‚­Žg‚í‚ê‚é

content: ŠÜ‚Ü‚ê‚é‚à‚Ì

mineral: –³‹@‚Ì

 

The result which of water that is used in the middle-western part of American homes indicates

       is shown in Table

the list 5.2.

An analysis of tap water in a Midwest home revealed the information in Table 5.2.

revealed: –¾‚ç‚©‚É‚·‚é

•\FTable, }F@Figure

@‰»ŠwŽ®FScheme

 

‚PD                          concentration

‚QD                          environment

‚RD                          preparation ’²»

‚SD                          static

‚TD                          Temperature

 

Scheme ‚Æ‚©Figure‚ðŽ¦‚·ê‡AScheme 1. Effective preparationc.‚̂悤‚Ƀ^ƒCƒgƒ‹‚ð‚½‚¢‚Ä‚¢“ü‚ê‚éB‚±‚ê‚ðƒLƒƒƒvƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚Æ‚¢‚¤

 

You must not guess that

                  consider

drinking a cup of water     

 self risk-benefit, but really that

 relates a     actually 

self.

does.

I think you never even

 dream that drinking a

consider

 glass of water have a risk and benefit a problem of convenience, but in fact, those relate to each other.

 

Readers will never dreamed that to drink a

consider

 glass of water have a risk and convenience problem, but those have a relativity.

      it  relates.

The reader never will

dream that drinking a

consider

glass of water concerns risk and benefit, but in fact it is (concerned).

          does

Perhaps you have never considered drinking a glass of water as a risk-benefit act, yet it is.

iƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgj

‚±‚ê‚܂łɍl‚¦‚½‚±‚Æ‚Í‚È‚¢‚¾‚낤i–²‚É‚àŽv‚í‚È‚¢j‚Æ‚¢‚¤ˆÓ–¡‡‚¢‚ÅŒ»ÝŠ®—¹Œ`‚ðŽg‚Á‚Ä‚¢‚éB

 

We tend to think that there is a great benefit and low risk in drinking water.

It is because that you consider water is treated, and chemically analyzed. in chemistry.

 

Because drinking water is treated properly and (made a chemical analysis),

chemically analyzed,

 we consider that it has a great convenience, on the other hand it has a very small risk.

low

Since a proper treatment and a chemical analysis have been done, we tend to recognize that drinking water has high benefit, while it has a only very low risk.

We usually consider water that has been chemically analyzed and treated to have important benefits with very low risk.

 

Fortunately, almost all of the cases is are (right).

                       correct

Fortunately, in the most cases of almost all, (it comes to look like it).

that is correct.

 

Overwhelmingly, this is a valid assumption.

 

‚PD                          cation

‚QD                          reduction

‚RD                          fluorescence

‚SD                          transition state

‚TD                          bromine

 

5.4 Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solutions

 

The (notion) of

      concept

 concentration has been introduced in Chapter 1 in a relation of air

            to the

 composition.

 

The concept of concentration is induced

                    introduced    

 into the Chapter 1 in

  connection with the air

                   to

 composition.

 

The concept of concentration was first introduced in Chapter 1 in relation to the composition of air.

 

In Chapters 2 and 3, we utilized several units of concentration were utilized when we consider (concentration) of

that

chlorinated substances in the stratosphere and accumulated concentration of greenhouse gases in the troposphere were considered.

 

In Chapters 2 and 3, I used some concentration units when we considered

 of (concentration) of

      that

 (kinds of) chlorinated matters

several             compounds

 on the stratosphere and

in

 accumulated concentration of greenhouse gases in the troposphere.

 

In Chapters 2 and 3, I also used some concentration units when I considered that of concentration of chlorine substances in the stratosphere and accumulated concentration of greenhouse (effect) gases in the troposphere.

 

We used concentration units again in Chapters 2 and 3, looking at concentrations of chlorine compounds in the stratosphere or greenhouse gases accumulating in the troposphere.

 

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

•¶Í‚ð’Z‚­‚·‚邽‚߁AFXH•v‚·‚éithat‚ðŽg‚¤A‚Ü‚Æ‚ß‚ç‚ê‚é’PŒê‚͂ЂƂ‚ɂ·‚éA”\“®‘Ô‚ðŽg‚¤j

 

Editorial we: ˜_•¶’†‚Å‚ÍI‚Í‚Ù‚Æ‚ñ‚Ç—p‚¢‚¸’P’˜‚̏ꍇ‚àwe‚ðŽg‚¤‚±‚Æ‚ª‘½‚¢B

 

Here (let's) review a

     we will

 concept of concentration (from the point of view )

in terms

   of a substance dissolving in water.

dissolved

Now we will revisit this concept in terms of substances dissolved in water.

 

‚PD                          catalyst

‚QD                          reaction rate

‚RD                          interaction

‚SD                          derivative

‚TD                          Precipitate

 

For example, (we) think about a         

 solution that sodium chloride is melted by a

               dissolved in

 water.

For example, (we will) consider about the sodium chloride aqueous solution.

 

As an example, consider a solution of NaCl in water.

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

E‰ÈŠw˜_•¶‚ł͏ȗª‚̃Aƒ|ƒXƒgƒƒtƒB‚ðŠÜ‚Þ’PŒê‚ÍŽg‚Á‚Ä‚Í‚¢‚¯‚È‚¢B

E           …—n‰taqueous, NaCl…—n‰tFaqueous NaCl

E           l‚¦‚遁consider

 

The molar mass of NaCl is 58.5 g, (so) the weight per

          therefore             of

1 mol of NaCl is 58.5 g.

 

The molar mass of NaCl is 58.5 g, so the weight of

       therefore

 one mol NaCl is 58.5 g.

 

The molar mass of NaCl is 58.5 g; therefore, 1 mol of NaCl weighs 58.5 g.

 

(ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒg)

‰pŒê‚ł͐”Žš‚Æ’PˆÊ‚̊ԂɃXƒy[ƒX‚ð“ü‚ê‚éB—áŠO‚́“‚ÆŠp“x‚́‹@‚ŁA‚±‚ê‚ɂ̓Xƒy[ƒX‚ð“ü‚ê‚È‚¢B

E           so‚ðŽg‚¢‚½‚¢‚Æ‚«‚Ítherefore‚ðŽg‚¤

E           GiƒZƒ~ƒRƒƒ“j‚́A,‚ƁD‚Ì’†ŠÔ‚̐؂ê–ځBƒZƒ~ƒRƒƒ“‚ðŽg‚¤‚ƁA‚Q‚‚̕¶‚ðÚ‘±‚µ‚È‚µ‚ł‚Ȃ°‚ç‚ê‚éB

˜_•¶‘S‘Ì‚Å‚P‰ñ‚©‚Q‰ñ‚®‚ç‚¢‚̏­”—˜—p‚È‚ç‹–‚³‚ê‚éB

 

The molar of NaCl solution

    concentration

 is 1.00 M when 58.5 g of NaCl is dissolved in some water, then enough water is added to make 1 L as shown in Figure 5.6.

 

If we dissolve 58.5 g of NaCl of 58.5 g in (suitable)

   some

 amount water, then add water, and to make capacity correctly 1 L, we

             exactly

 obtain 1.00 M NaCl solution whose molarity is 1.00 M. (refer to Figure 5.6).

If we were to dissolve 58.5 g of NaCl in some water and then enough water to make exactly 1.000 L of solution, we would have a 1.00 M NaCl solution (Figure 5.6).

iƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgj

E³Šm‚ȁi—ʁj@exactly

E           Figure, Table, Scheme‚ð‚Ì‚¹‚é‚Æ‚«‚ɂ́A–{•¶’†‚É’f‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚­‚±‚Æ‚ª•K—vBAs shown in Scheme 1‚Æ‚©•¶Í‚̍Ōã‚ɁiScheme 1j.‚̂悤‚ÉŽ¦‚·B

 

reflux

insoluble

sublimation

condensation

reactant

 

 

 

 

 

•œK—pWebƒy[ƒW

 

http://unno.chem-bio.st.gunma-u.ac.jp/~unno-lab/English/

 

Œã”¼ƒvƒŒƒ[ƒ“u‹`‚̐i‚ß•û

E           6‚‚̔ǂɕª‚©‚ê‚āA—L‹@‰»Šw‚̃gƒsƒbƒN‚ðˆê‚‘I‚сA‰pŒê‚ōu‰‰‚ðs‚¤B

E           ”­•\ŽžŠÔ‚Í1•ª’ö“xAƒXƒ‰ƒCƒh2–‡ˆÈ‰ºAˆÃ‹L

 

 

ƒvƒŒƒ[ƒ“ƒe[ƒVƒ‡ƒ“‚̃|ƒCƒ“ƒg

E           Žš‚Í‘å‚«‚­i48ƒ|ƒCƒ“ƒgˆÈãj

E           }A‰æ‘œA•\‚ðŠˆ—p

E           Žš‚̐F‚͍őå3F’ö“x

 

˜b‚µ•û

E           ‘å‚«‚Ȑº‚Å

E           Ž‹ü‚͉ïê‚É

 

—ûK‚͑厖I

 

 

Å‰‚ÉŒˆ‚߂邱‚Æ

E           Ži‰ïŽÒ

E           ƒgƒsƒbƒN

E           •ª’S‚ðŒˆ‚ß‚é

1”ǁFƒAƒ‹ƒLƒ“AƒAƒ‹ƒPƒ“‚Ö‚Ì•t‰Á

2”ǁFƒnƒƒAƒ‹ƒJƒ“‚Ì‹Šj’uŠ·”½‰ž

3”ǁF‰»ŠwŒ‹‡‚Æ•ªŽq‚̐¬‚è—§‚¿

4”ǁF’uŠ·ƒxƒ“ƒ[ƒ“‚Ì”zŒü«

5”ǁF—L‹@‰»‡•¨‚ÌŽí—Þ

6”ǁFŽ_‚Ɖ–Šî

 

ƒXƒg[ƒŠ[ì‚èA–ðŠ„•ª’SAŒÂlƒXƒ‰ƒCƒh‚ð“ú–{Œê‚ō쐬

 

“~‹x‚݁`@ŽQl‘‚Ȃǂ𒲂ׂāA”­•\‚·‚é“à—e‚ðŒˆ‚ßƒXƒ‰ƒCƒh‚ðŒˆ’è‚·‚éB‰Â”\‚Å‚ ‚ê‚Γú–{ŒêŒ´e‚ðì‚éB}‚̍쐬‚ðs‚Á‚Ä‚¨‚­iŽžŠÔ‚ª‚©‚©‚é‚̂ŁjB

 

unno@gunma-u.ac.jp‚“

 

1/7  ƒXƒ‰ƒCƒh‰pŒê‰»A}‚ðì‚éB“ú–{ŒêŒ´eŠ®¬

 

1/14  ƒXƒ‰ƒCƒhƒtƒ@ƒCƒ‹ì¬AŒ´e‰pŒê‰»

 

`”­•\ƒXƒ‰ƒCƒhAŒ´e‚ðŠ®¬‚·‚é

 

1/28@ƒŠƒn[ƒTƒ‹AÅI‚·‚荇‚킹

 

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2/4(•âuŠúŠÔ)@”­•\–{”Ô

 

2/4i•âuŠúŠÔjŠeŽ©ƒvƒŒƒ[ƒ“ƒe[ƒVƒ‡ƒ“”­•\ƒrƒfƒI‚ðŒ©‚é